Sprained Ankle Overview

Sprained ankle injuries are painful and easy to acquire. It takes a lot of force to sprain an ankle, but under the right conditions, even the tiniest misstep can cause lasting damage. Severe sprains tend to range in severity, ranging from mild tweaks to moderate stress responses (with pain) and severe dislocations (requiring surgery). It's important to contact your doctor immediately following any injury. The time between the onset of symptoms and treatment is crucial for proper healing.

What is a Sprained Ankle?

Sprained ankles are one of the most common injuries—approximately twenty-five thousand people sprain their ankle every day. Not to be confused with a strain, which is an injury involving muscle or a tendon (which are located between the bones), an ankle sprain is an injury to the ligament—a tough band of tissue that holds the bone together. Ankle sprains usually happen when these ligaments are overstretched or torn.

Sprained Ankle Causes

One's bone causes a sprained ankle to be pulled in the opposite direction than what it normally should be. This happens when there is a sudden and forceful movement of the joint that causes the ankle ligaments to stretch or tear. Several common things can cause this shift:

  • Previous injury to the ankle can have long-lasting effects on the joint’s stability, depending on severity. Those who have previously sprained an ankle are more likely to injure their ankle again.
  • Landing awkwardly on your foot after slipping, falling, or jumping is an easy way to injure your ankle.
  • Walking, running, or simply stepping on an uneven surface can cause an ankle sprain.
  • Sports place added demands on the ankle’s range of motion, increasing the risk of a sprained ankle. This is especially true with high impact sports that involve quick changes of direction or pivoting.
  • Unbalanced placement of the foot when stepping up or down places tension on the ankle ligaments, making them more susceptible to strains.

Sprained Ankle Symptoms

An ankle injury may look like a disaster, but with the right care, it can be treated. Most ankle injuries are classified as either sprains or fractures. To know the difference and seek proper treatment immediately, it's imperative to recognize the symptoms of a sprained ankle--here they are:

Pain and Discomfort

Depending on the severity of your sprained ankle, your pain may vary. You will generally experience at least some discomfort or an incredibly sharp pain in your foot or even ankle. Due to the injury, you can hear and feel a pop.

Sprained Ankle Bruising

Stiffness usually accompanies a sprained ankle, swelling, and bruising. If the ankle has a lot of bruising, then it is probably a sign that the sprain is severe.

Sprained Ankle Swelling

Swelling and inflammation, known as edema, are two common side effects of a sprained ankle. The body releases chemicals to respond to the sprain by increasing blood flow. This is great for healing, but can also cause the next-door tissues to swell up. In severe cases of ankle swelling, blood may not be able to pass around the injury freely enough for proper healing, resulting in other symptoms such as decreased sensation or pain.

Symptoms of a bone break

If you experience a lot of pain, cannot put weight through your ankle at all, and you have sharp pain directly over the area where your ankle is located, it could be a sign that you have broken your ankle. In that case, you should take an X-ray to rule that out for sure!

Types of Sprained Ankle Pain

Not all sprained ankles are created equal. This isn't exactly an emergency, but your doctor should help you identify the type and grade of your problem ankle and coordinate the best treatment option for your unique situation.

Inversion vs. Eversion Ankle Sprain

Inversion Ankle Sprain

Foot sprains happen on occasion, but so do ankle injuries like the inversion sprain. An inversion sprain occurs when the ankle rolls inward, and damage occurs to the ligaments on the outer side of the ankle. Unlike stability sprains, which involve only one ligament stretching beyond its elasticity limit, an inverting sprain involves more than one ligament suffering a tear.

Eversion Ankle Sprain

Less frequently, the ankle rolls outward. If there is a sprain, it's usually on the inside of the foot or ankle, and can cause serious injury to the ligaments and tendons supporting the arch of your foot.

Sprained Ankle Prevention

There are many precautionary steps you can take to prevent ankle sprains:

  • Always use a herbal heating pad to warm up properly before exercise or other strenuous activities.
  • Use a suitable ankle brace for high-risk activities, such as sports or hiking.
  • Wear shoes that provide proper ankle support.
  • Use exercise to establish good muscle strength, coordination, and flexibility and balance.
  • Use care when walking or running on uneven surfaces.

Sprained Ankle Recovery & Outlook

Much like any other part of the body, recovery time from a sprained ankle varies. On average, it takes approximately two weeks to heal, but will depend on the severity of the sprain. For example, those who suffer from a mild grade 1 sprain immediately resume normal activities after their injury, while those with a more severe grade 2 sprain may take between six and twelve weeks to heal completely.

Sprained Ankle Rehab & Physical Therapy

Regardless of the severity of an ankle sprain, it's vital during the recovery phase to follow three phases that help speed up rehabilitation and ensure complete healing, so as to avoid further complications:

Phase 1

Following a rest, ice, compression and elevation (R.I.C.E.) protocol will be the best way to start managing your injury properly and take the right decisions in the initial stages after you've sustained an injury, since these guidelines were created by medical specialists across America and endorsed by many athletes and sports organizations alike. Following this protocol will allow you to get over all injuries quicker than most, and help avoid further strain or damage that might compound on top if left unattended.

Phase 2

Slowly build up your strength and fitness levels based on the type of physical activity you wish to participate in.

Phase 3

During the final stage of ankle rehabilitation, progress exercises and gradually return to normal activities. After you have fully completed this last phase in your recovery from ankle surgery, return to sports and other activities while keeping up with your regular exercise routine.


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